Plastic Strategy (EU)

The EU has adopted today (16th January 2018) its first plastic strategy. The press release is here. The Q&A is here.

Next Steps

The new Directive on port reception facilities proposed today will now go to the European Parliament and Council for adoption.

Subject to Better Regulation requirements, the Commission will present the proposal on single-use plastics later in 2018.

Stakeholders have until 12 February 2018 to contribute to the ongoing public consultation.

The Commission will launch the work on the revision of the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive and prepare guidelines on separate collection and sorting of waste to be issued in 2019.

For the full list of measures and their timeline, see the Annex to the Plastics Strategy here.

A few remarks (in the UK Brexit context)

(1) I posted a few days ago about imminent changes to 6 EU Waste Directives (the EU Circular Economy Package). The new rules will fix a new target of 55% recycling of plastic packaging waste by 2030, set a ban on landfilling separately collected waste and fix stronger arrangements for extended producer responsibility (EPR) schemes. It is not announced if the UK will follow this.

(2) The EU Plastic Strategy identifies that by 2030 all plastic packaging should be designed to be recyclable or reusable. To achieve this, the European Commission will work on a revision of the legislative requirements for placing packaging on the market. The revision process will focus on defining the concept of design for recyclability. The goal is to decrease the quantity of waste generated and to avoid that these materials end up as litter, are incinerated or are landfilled where can be recycled. This also includes the issue of over-packaging. It is not announced if the UK will follow this (the commitment in the UK 25-yr environmental plan is to eliminate plastic waste where practicable by 2042).

(3) Microplastics are plastic particles smaller than 5 mm. They end up in the surface waters and the marine environment, either because they are used intentionally in products in order to accomplish a certain function (e.g. microbeads in cosmetics as exfoliating agents) or because they are generated through the breakdown of larger plastic pieces and through the wear and tear of products (e.g. through abrasion of tyres or washing of textiles).

The European Commission has started work to restrict the use of microplastics that are intentionally added in products through the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation (REACH).

Regarding unintentional release of microplastics, the European Commission is examining options such as labelling, minimum requirements for product design and durability, methods to assess quantities and pathways of microplastics in the environment, funding for targeted research and innovation.

The UK Government has brought in Microbeads Regulations applicable in England. I posted earlier about this, and Email Alerts have been sent (if you did not receive an Email Alert, and need the legislation adding to your EHS Legislation and Law Checklists, please let me know).

(4) The EU Plastic Strategy proposes to look into actions to specifically tackle single-use plastic items and other marine litter, including lost or abandoned fishing gear. Preparatory work has started on a legislative initiative on single-use plastics to be tabled by the European Commission, following the approach already used to tackle light-weight plastic bags.

The results of an ongoing public consultation will help determine the measures to be taken. The UK 25-yr environment plan contains proposals on single-use plastics, but not specifically on fishing gear.

(5) A 2015 amendment of the European Packaging and Packaging Directive mandated Member States to address plastic bag use – see article 4(1a) in the Directive itself here. The UK brought in Legislation in all UK jurisdictions (prior to the 2015 Directive amendment being agreed) and recently signalled it would remove the exemptions that were applied in England.

Note : the provisions of article 8a in the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive which relate to the labelling and identification of biodegradable and compostable plastic carrier bags, the implementation period (for Member States) is 18 months from the date of that separate 2017 European instrument.

25-yr Environment Plan (UK)

The UK issued a few moments ago, its long awaited 25-yr Environment Plan. The Plan is here.

I will update this post on the Blog here with the Plan key commitments, targets and schedules. Please note, the updates will not be sent as emails to your inbox (the original post is emailed). So make a note, to check back on the Blog post itself.

UPDATE

Pledges :

(1) eliminate avoidable plastic waste by 2042,

(2) remove exceptions in England plastic bag regulations [the latest amendment to the EU Packaging and Packing Waste Directive stipulates measures on plastic bags by end 2018, plus the European Commission’s Plastics Strategy is announced next week – I will write a separate Blog post about it],

(2)(a) consultation in a charge for single-use plastic containers,

(3) protect ancient woodland and plant more trees, a new Tree Champion to be appointed after the National Planning Policy Framework is updated,

(4) retain strong targets for wildlife, water and air,

(5) “polluter pays” and “public money for public goods” as guiding principles for future farming policy (plus subsidy reform from 2024 (2022-2024 consultation) – this may be set out in the forthcoming Brexit Agriculture Bill),

(6) sustainable drainage to make cities safer from floods – new planning guidelines,

(7) healthcare that takes advantage of green prescriptions – preventative care that can make the most of “natural health service”,

(8) nature integrated in urban communities – net nature gain in new developments (possibly via the revamp of the National Planning Policy Framework,

(9) a new Watchdog to hold government to account – a new environment body to replace the activities of the EU’s Commission and Courts (this was an earlier DEFRA announcement – see recent Blog posts – the next step is consultation),

(10) nature targets (little detail),

(11) “leave the environment in a better state than they found it”, “the goals of our 25 year environment plan are simple: clean air, clean and plentiful water, plants and animals which are thriving, and a cleaner, greener country for us all. A better world for each of us to live in and a better future for the next generation.”,

(12) a miscellany of other pledges with little attached detail.

Note : the objectives in the plan itself add relatively little to the European and international commitments the UK is already signed up to.

But : the UK is meant to achieve good ecological status for all water bodies by the mid 2020s under the EU Water Framework Directive. The commitment in this 25-yr plan to achieve good water quality “as soon as practicable” is a lesser target.

Also : there is no mention of implementation of the forthcoming EU Circular Economy amendments to six existing Waste Directives.

Plus : there is no mention of the EU “precautionary principle’, particularly relevant to chemicals.

Waste (EU)

In 2015 the European Commission proposed revisions to existing EU waste law. Four new revising EU Directives were proposed (known as the Circular Economy Package) :

(1) revision to the EU Waste Directive

(2) revision to the EU Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive

(3) revision of the EU Landfill Directive

(4) revision of the EU End-of-life Vehicles Directive, the Batteries and Waste Batteries Directive, and The WEEE Directive.

Key elements of the 2015 waste proposal are:

  • A common EU target for recycling 65% of municipal waste by 2030;
  • A common EU target for recycling 75% of packaging waste by 2030;
  • A binding landfill target to reduce landfill to maximum of 10%of municipal waste by 2030;
  • A ban on landfilling of separately collected waste;
  • Promotion of economic instruments to discourage landfilling;
  • Simplified and improved definitions and harmonised calculation methods for recycling rates throughout the EU;
  • Concrete measures to promote re-use and stimulate industrial symbiosis –turning one industry’s by-product into another industry’s raw material;
  • Economic incentives for producers to put greener products on the market and support recovery and recycling schemes (eg for packaging, batteries, electric and electronic equipment, vehicles).

Provisional agreement was reached in December 2017 in the final stage of the EU law making process :

* Revised common EU targets for municipal waste recycling – at least 55% by 2025, 60% by 2030, 65% by 2035,

* 10% cap on landfill by 2035,

* provisions for countries to restrict the use of single-use plastics,

* improvements in the traceability of hazardous substances in products and waste,

* decontamination of hazardous waste,

* restrictions on oxo-degradable plastics and planned obsolescence.

The final analysis of the agreed text will take place under the new Bulgarian presidency (that has commenced in January 2018) with a view to confirm the agreement.

After formal approval, the new legislation will be submitted to the European Parliament for a vote at first reading and to the Council for final adoption.

The new laws will come into force in 2018 and will then need to be transposed to into national legislation.

THIS POST WILL BE UPDATED WHEN THE AGREED LAW TEXT IS PUBLISHED – the revised EU laws will be loaded into EHS Legislation Registers at that point.

Waste (UK)

On 1st January 2018 China imposed a ban on the import of certain types of waste including mixed paper and post-consumer plastics (plastics thrown away by consumers). In addition, some other types of waste, including all other paper and plastics exports, will have to meet a reduced acceptable contamination level of 0.5% from March 2018.

China’s decision has a global impact, including in the UK. 3.7 million tonnes of plastic waste are created in the UK in a single year. Of that total, the UK exports 0.8 million tonnes to countries around the world, of which 0.4 million tonnes is sent to China (incl. Hong Kong). In comparison, other countries including Germany (0.6 million tonnes), Japan and the US (both 1.5 million tonnes) export more plastic to China for reprocessing than the UK. The UK also exports 3.7 million tonnes of paper waste to China (incl. Hong Kong), out of 9.1 million tonnes of paper waste in total. In comparison, the US exports 12.8 million tonnes of paper waste to China.

Today, the DEFRA Secretary outlined in a Written Statement here, the progress made on this matter.

The statement identifies that the Environment Agency has issued fresh guidance to exporters, stating that any waste which does not meet China’s new criteria will be stopped, in the same way as banned waste going to any other country. If you are exporting waste, please check the guidance you are using. If you wish this guidance to be loaded onto the EHS Legislation Registers, please let me know (it currently is not loaded).

The statement confirms Operators must continue to manage waste on their sites in accordance with the permit conditions issued by the Environment Agency (England), (presumably ditto in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). Where export markets or domestic reprocessing are not available, the process chosen to manage waste must be the one that minimises the environmental impact of treatment as fully as possible and follows the waste hierarchy. This requires operators to ensure that where waste cannot be prevented or reused it is recycled where practicable, before considering energy recovery through incineration or the last resort of disposal to landfill.

In July 2017, the DEFRA Secretary announced at the World Wildlife Fund its intention to publish a new Resources and Waste Strategy later in 2018. The Clean Growth Strategy, published on 12 October 2017, set out the ambition for zero avoidable waste by 2050 and announced that changes are being explored to the producer responsibility scheme. An earlier Blog post details the Clean Growth Strategy key elements.

In December 2017, the DEFRA Secretary chaired an industry roundtable on plastics and outlined his four point plan for tackling plastic waste: cutting the total amount of plastic in circulation; reducing the number of different plastics in use; improving the rate of recycling; supporting comprehensive and frequent rubbish and recycling collections, and making it easier for individuals to know what goes into the recycling bin and what goes into general rubbish.

Other measures (mentioned in this Statement) are :

  1. the existing 5p charge on plastic bags that has taken 9 billion bags out of circulation, reducing usage by 83%,
  2. the ban on the manufacture of personal care products containing plastic microbeads in force tomorrow 9th January 2018 (an earlier Blog post identifies this, and Email Alerts have been sent to subscribers likely to need this legislation – if you have not received this Email Alert and need the legislation, please let me know),
  3. a call for evidence (October 2017) on managing single use drinks containers – DEFRA working group will report to Ministers early in 2018,
  4. work with HMT (Treasury) on a call for evidence in 2018 to seek views on how the tax system or charges could reduce the amount of single use plastics waste, and
  5. £3bn committed by 2042 under the Waste Infrastructure Delivery Programme to support a range of facilities to keep waste out of landfill and increase recycling levels.

The Statement confirms China’s decision underlines the need for progress in all these areas, specifically waste reduction, and minimising waste export.

The Statement identifies DEFRA will set out further steps in the coming weeks and months to achieve these goals, including in the forthcoming 25 Year Environment Plan.

DEFRA update (UK)

On 1st November, DEFRA Secretary Michael Gove appeared before the UK Environmental Audit Committee hearing (having first appeared before the Lords EU Committee). The recording is here.

(1) Consultation for a new Environmental Regulator would likely take place ahead of the UK’s departure in March 2019.

“The need for a body or bodies has been clearly identified… as a need to safeguard the environment.”

“Outside the EU, the question is what replaces the Commission. How do we have the ECJ’s role replicated? I think that this is an absolutely important question, and my thinking is that we should consult on what type of body would be appropriate to replace the role that the Commission and Court have played.”

“It’s right that… we ensure there is a right balance between ensuring people continue to have recourse to the court through judicial review, but also recognise that you might need an agency, body or commission that has the power to potentially fine or otherwise hold government and public bodies to account.”

“We could have a system in that UK that is stronger and more effective than the EU’s because the Government could be held to account in a way that the EU itself currently cannot.”

(2) Re : DEFRA 25-yr Plan – Defra had initially planned frameworks for two separate 25-year environment and food & farming plans, but there would now be only one document published, which would be released either before Christmas or, at latest, in January 2018. The document would feature new policies in key areas such as recycling and biodiversity. 

The plan could see the UK Government step up its voluntary approach on food waste targets (NB Scotland and NI have specific food waste producer obligations, and Wales prohibits down the drawn disposal of food waste). 

“I am very keen that we should try to reduce food waste at every stage in the cycle”

“Having an ambitious target to reduce avoidable waste is an incredibly useful tool and discipline.”

The plan, which will be open for consultation, would be followed by a command paper on the future shape of agriculture, as a prelude to the agricultural bill expected in early Spring.

(3) Re : China’s ban on 24 grades of waste material imports, due to come into force in January [UK exports around 4.5 million tonnes of waste to China for recycling or recovery.]

“I don’t know what impact it will have.”

“It is a very good question and something to which I’ll be completely honest I have not given sufficient thought.”

Plastic Bags Tax (UK)

Wales

The Single Use Carrier Bags Charge (Wales) Regulations 2010 (amended 2011) are in force from 1st October 2011.

These rules require all retailers in Wales to charge a minimum of 5 pence for every single use carrier bag (including paper bags but not large plastic bags or paper bags used for raw food and certain other products) supplied new. Retailers employing fewer than 10 full-time staff do not have to keep records or make reports. County councils and county borough councils administer this charge. The money raised is kept by the retailer and the rules do not specify where the proceeds of the charge should go. The expectation is that the proceeds should be passed on to charities or to good causes in Wales, and in particular to environmental projects. 

A voluntary agreement sets out guiding principles on where the net proceeds should go. The Waste (Wales) Measure 2010 gives Welsh Ministers the power to create regulations which would impose duties on retailers on the destination of proceeds from the charge. 

The voluntary agreement is here.

Scotland

The legislation is The Single Use Carrier Bags Charge (Scotland) Regulations 2014 (amended 2015). This came into force on 20th October 2014. As with Wales, the charge is 5p per single use carrier bag, and again businesses employing less than 10 full-time staff are exempt from the requirement to keep, retain and supply information about the bags supplied and the monies received as a result of the charge. Also retailers keep the charge, and again the expectation is that these monies should be donated to good causes.

A Carrier Bag Committment document exists for retailers to sign up to. Details are found here.

Northern Ireland

Requirements are set out in the Carrier Bags Act (Northern Ireland) 2014, the Single Use Carrier Bags Act (Northern Ireland) 2011, and The Single Use Carrier Bags Charge Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2013. These came into effect from 8th April 2013.

These rules oblige retailers (as in Wales and Scotland) to charge 5p for every single use carrier bag supplied new. In addition, from 19th January 2015, retailers must add 5p to all carrier bags with a retail price below 20p, regardless of whether they are single use or reusable. This is called the Carrier Bag Levy and In Northern Ireland, the monies raised must be paid to the Department of Environment (DOE). Further information is found here.

England

The Single Use Carrier Bags Charges (England) Order 2015 sets out the rules, and came into force on 5th October 2015.

The obligation to charge for single-use carrier bags applies to retailers with 250 or more employees. Smaller businesses may also charge on a voluntary basis if they wish. The 250 employee threshold applies to the company not the size of the individual retail outlet. Records must be kept and sent to DEFRA. It is expected that all proceeds (after deduction of reasonable costs) should be donated to good causes, along the lines of the way this works in Wales. Further information is found here.

Food Waste (UK)

Northern Ireland

The Food Waste Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2015 amend the Waste and Contaminated Land (Northern Ireland) Order 1997 (as amended) to provide for the separate collection of food waste from 1st April 2016.

The duty is on food businesses producing in excess of 5kg of food waste per week to present food waste for separate collection. For the period 1st April 2016-31st March 2017, the threshold is 50kg of food waste per week. These businesses must not deposit food waste in a lateral drain or sewer (this duty applies from 1st April 2017).

Waste transporters must collect and transport food waste separately from other waste. This duty applies from 1st April 2015.

Subscribers to Cardinal Environment Tailored EHS Legislation Registers will have their systems updated nearer the time, and a formal Email Alert will be sent out.

Scotland

The above duties apply in Scotland. The relevant dates is 1st January 2016 for the threshold to drop from 50 kg per week to 5kg per week, and for the ban on disposal to drain.

Cardinal Environment Tailored EHS Legislation Registers are already updated, subscribers are reminded in 2015 Annual Reviews, and a reminder Email Alert will be sent out.

England and Wales

No food waste legislation is yet enacted. A Food Waste (Reduction) Bill is introduced as a 10-Minute Rule Motion and has all party support. This bill will have its second reading in January 2016. 

This bill obliges the Secretary of State to make provision for a scheme to establish incentives to implement and encourage observance of the food waste reduction hierarchy; to encourage individuals, businesses and public bodies to reduce the amount of food they waste; to require large supermarkets, manufacturers and distributors to reduce their food waste by no less than 30 per cent by 2025 and to enter into formal agreements with food redistribution organisations; to require large supermarkets and food manufacturers to disclose levels of food waste in their supply chain.

Information on bill progress is found here.

Republic of Ireland (ROI)

ROI has had food waste legislation in place for some time.

Cardinal Environment Tailored EHS Legislation Systems already include these rules.