Rail Transport (UK from 1st January 2021)

Rules change from 1st January 2021 (as a result of Brexit).

The UK Department for Transport issued on 1st July, text applicable to Rail Transport from 1st January 2021. This text is here.

The UK text also refers the reader to the already existing European Commission Notice, updated 28 April, here.

Note the following (this is not an exhaustive list, please read the text behind the links).

Note the deadlines – 1st January 2021 and 1st January 2022. Note the different rules in Northern Ireland.

(1) EU-based operators must apply to the Office of Rail and Road (ORR) for documentation to run services in Britain – the necessary documentation is required by 31 January 2022.

For Northern Ireland, the UK text says “non-UK operators are currently not subject to a time-limited period”. This flows from the Ireland/Northern Ireland Protocol of the EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement.

(2) The UK text says “It is likely that certificates and licences issued in the UK will not be valid in the EU from 1 January 2021”.

If this is the case, operators of cross-border services will be subject to the recognition implications set out in both UK and EU rules.

(3) The UK will continue to recognise certain EU-issued documents until 31 January 2022 for services in Britain. These are operator licences, safety certificates, and train driving licences.

For Northern Ireland, the UK text says “The 2-year time limit from 31 January 2020 on recognition of these categories of EU-issued documents does not currently apply to Northern Ireland.” Again, this flows from the Ireland/Northern Ireland Protocol of the EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement.

Any future arrangements with France are expected to deal with the Channel Tunnel itself but not with the routes into continental Europe (beyond Calais-Fréthun). UK operators and train drivers will need to obtain additional licences and safety certificates to operate or work in the EU.

(4) The UK’s formal participation in the EU Agency for Railways (ERA) ended on 31 January 2020 and the UK is not seeking membership of ERA. The UK text says “The UK intends to put in place appropriate arrangements for regulatory co-operation with ERA where this is necessary to secure the safety of international rail services.”

(5) After 31 January 2022, operators with an EU operating licence will need to hold an ORR-issued licence to operate in Britain. Establishment in the UK is not necessary, but the UK ORR licence will need to have been applied for and obtained by 31 January 2022 to continue operating after that date.

Operators holding an ORR-issued licence that run domestic services in the EU will need to re-apply for an operator licence in an EU member state, consulting the relevant guidance and following the requirements from the EU or the relevant member state. The licence must be in place by 1 January 2021.

This is also the case for UK-based operators seeking to run new domestic services in an EU member state.

Operators of cross-border services between the UK and the EU holding an ORR-issued licence will need to re-apply for an operator licence in an EU member state. The licence must be in place by 1 January 2021.

(6) ORR-issued Part A and Part B safety certificates will be valid for UK-based domestic operators operating in Britain until their normal expiry.

EU established operators running a domestic-only service in Britain, with a Part A safety certificate issued in the EU before 31 January 2020, will be able to use these certificates until 31 January 2022 or until they expire – whichever is earlier.

Proposed changes to UK regulations will allow EU established operators running a domestic-only service in Britain with a Part A safety certificate issued in the EU before 31 January 2022 to run services in Britain until 31 January 2022. These changes are to be made in the Railways (Miscellaneous Amendments, Revocations and Transitional Provisions) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020. Subject to Parliamentary process, it is expected they will come into force on 31 December 2020.

This will also apply to operators running services with a single safety certificate issued under Directive (EU) 2016/798, which will be deemed equivalent to a UK Part A safety certificate during the period between 31 December 2020 (subject to the changes to regulations coming into force) and 31 January 2022.

If trains are operated in Britain on the basis of an EU-issued safety certificate, the relevant safety certification issued by the ORR is required by 31 January 2022 at the latest. An ORR-issued Part B certificate associated with an EU-issued Part A safety certificate or a Single Safety Certificate will expire alongside the parent certificate. An operator obtaining new safety certification will also be required to apply for and obtain a new Part B safety certificate.

Establishment in the UK is not required to obtain relevant safety certification issued by the ORR, but a UK address must be supplied in the application.

For Northern Ireland – the UK text says – “non-UK based operators running a domestic-only service with a Part A safety certificate issued in the EU are not currently subject to a time-limited recognition period.” Again, this flows from the Ireland/Northern Ireland Protocol of the EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement.

Any EU operator seeking to run domestic services in Britain based on an EU-issued Single Safety Certificate, issued under Directive (EU) 2016/798 until 31 January 2022, will also have to obtain a Part B safety certificate from the ORR before it can do so.

UK-based operators running domestic services in the EU who hold an ORR-issued, or Northern Ireland-issued, Part A safety certificate need to obtain an EU safety certificate by 1 January 2021. This also applies to UK-based operators seeking to run new domestic services in an EU country.

Operators established in the UK who operate cross-border services and hold an ORR-issued Part A safety certificate will need to obtain EU safety certification by 1 January 2021.

(7) Entities in charge of maintenance (ECM) that maintain vehicles in the EU on the basis of an ECM certificate issued in the UK by the ORR or an accredited certification body need to apply for and obtain a new ECM certificate from a certification body in an EU country.

Vehicles used in international traffic between the UK and the EU also have the option of obtaining a certificate according to the legal framework of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF). The validity of ECM certificates issued in the UK by the ORR or an accredited certification body will be unchanged for freight wagons running purely on the UK mainline railway. ECMs that hold a certificate issued in accordance with COTIF can continue using these certificates in the UK for operations involved in international traffic. ECMs may also rely on certificates issued in the EU in accordance with Commission Regulation 445/2011 to maintain freight wagons for use in domestic operations.

Proposed changes to regulations will allow ECMs to rely on certificates issued in the EU in accordance with the new Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/779 to maintain freight wagons for use in domestic operations. These changes are included in the Railways (Miscellaneous Amendments, Revocations and Transitional Provisions) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020. Subject to Parliamentary process, it is expected they will come into force on 31 December 2020.

(8) Drivers working on services in Britain, including cross-border services, and using licences and certificates issued in the EU up to the 31 January 2020, are able to drive trains on the basis of those licences until 31 January 2022 or until they expire – whichever is earlier.

Proposed changes to regulations will allow train drivers working on services in Britain, including cross-border services, and using licences and certificates issued in the EU up to the 31 January 2022, to use this documentation until the 31 January 2022. These changes are included in the Railways (Miscellaneous Amendments, Revocations and Transitional Provisions) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020. Subject to Parliamentary process, it is expected they will come into force on 31 December 2020.

From 31 January 2022, train drivers working in Britain will need to have obtained a UK train driving licence from the ORR to continue operating. The validity of train driving certificates is unaffected. However, operators must ensure that certificates held by newly re-licensed drivers (and their registers of those certificates) refer to the correct licence.

This means that, UK train driving licences are required by 31 January 2022.

Train drivers operating international services or driving domestic services in an EU member state on the basis of an ORR-issued train driving licence will need to re-apply for a train driving licence in an EU country. The new licence will need to be in place by 1 January 2021. Train drivers should apply for and obtain this as soon as possible, where they have not already done so.

(9) From 1 January 2021, the placing of interoperability constituents on the UK market will be based on a UK conformity assessment process, requiring compliance with applicable UK National Technical Specification Notices (NTSNs).

For Northern Ireland, the UK text says “Further updates may be provided in relation to Northern Ireland due to a review of obligations under the Northern Ireland Protocol.” This is the Ireland/Northern Ireland Protocol of the EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement.

The UK text says “It is currently expected that an interoperability constituent placed on the EU market up to 31 December 2020 with a certificate of conformity from a UK notified body will be able to be used within the EU for the period of validity of that certificate in subsystems or vehicles authorised before 1 January 2021.”

(10) Vehicles first authorised in the UK from 1 January 2021 will need to be authorised in the EU as well before they can be used in the EU. Vehicle authorisations issued in the EU up to 31 December 2020 will remain valid in the UK if the vehicle is already in use here prior to that date.

From 1 January 2021 vehicles first authorised outside the UK will require an additional authorisation before they are first used in the UK. This system will be operated in accordance with the UK’s COTIF international obligations.

Border Controls from 1st Jan 2021 (EU Goods Imports)

The UK Government has today (12 June 2020) announced that border controls for EU goods imported into Great Britain will be introduced at the end of Transition Period in stages.

The announcement is here.

This staged approach will apply to EU goods imports to GB only. The EU will enforce the checks required by EU Law in its side of the border, there are no announcements for facilitation applicable to GB goods exports to the EU.

Per the Government announcement –

• From January 2021: Traders importing standard goods, covering everything from clothes to electronics, will need to prepare for basic customs requirements, such as keeping sufficient records of imported goods, and will have up to six months to complete customs declarations. While tariffs will need to be paid on all imports, payments can be deferred until the customs declaration has been made. There will be checks on controlled goods like alcohol and tobacco. Businesses will also need to consider how they account for VAT on imported goods. There will also be physical checks at the point of destination or other approved premises on all high risk live animals and plants.

• From April 2021: All products of animal origin (POAO) – for example meat, pet food, honey, milk or egg products – and all regulated plants and plant products will also require pre-notification and the relevant health documentation.

• From July 2021: Traders moving all goods will have to make declarations at the point of importation and pay relevant tariffs. Full Safety and Security declarations will be required, while for SPS commodities there will be an increase in physical checks and the taking of samples: checks for animals, plants and their products will now take place at GB Border Control Posts.

An EU to GB (EU goods imports to GB) border operating model will be published by the UK in July 2020.

Trade flows between Northern Ireland and Ireland, or between GB and Northern Ireland are separate and covered by the Withdrawal Agreement.

The UK Global Tariff will apply to all goods imported into the UK from 1 January 2021, unless an exception applies. The measures announced today will not apply to third countries outside of the EU. Full import controls will continue to apply on trade between the UK and third countries outside of the EU and EEA.

As I commented in earlier Blog posts, commencing August 2020, we (Cardinal Environment) will be putting some staff through the UK Customs Academy Level 4 Certificate in Advanced Customs Compliance (tariffs and customs training). This is to facilitate client queries in the foreseeable.

Brexit and COVID-19 measures (EU)

The UK left the EU at end of January 2020, and will leave the transition period at end of December 2020.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic on 11th March 2020.

These two events are prompting substantive changes in many occupational, health and safety, and environment related measures in EU member states and at EU level.

The EU’s Brexit measures are found here.

[the first round of negotiations on a trade deal with the UK to operate from 1st January 2021 was held 2-5 March, the second round is not scheduled]

[the EU published a new draft legal text on 18 March here, new UK legal texts submitted to the EU in March are not published]

The EU’s COVID-19 measures are found here.

[note the measures announced to keep air cargo moving – here]

The EU’s Brexit and the COVID-19 measures are rooted in law. Cardinal Environment Limited advises on occupational health and safety law and environmental law via Email Alert to subscribers to Cardinal Environment EHS Legislation Registers & Checklists. The next Email Alert on EU-26 Registers & Checklists will be at the next 6-month interval (as usual). Ireland receives monthly Email Alerts due to its connectivity with the UK (its next Email Alert is end of March unless otherwise a different interval is operated).

Subscribers are reminded that they can request Annual Review (a teleconference) on renewal of annual subscriptions, and this is recommended.

Of particular note are –

(1) changes around borders, goods transport and people mobility to keep the Single Market open during the COVID-19 pandemic

(2) measures that may result from the EU-UK trade deal negotiations

Individual member states will be operating internal COVID-19 emergency –

(1) changes around workplace organisation, particularly additional requirements to keep the workplace safe and provide for home working

(2) temporary bans on the opening of some business premises on health grounds

(3) changes around worker employment (this Blog does not address detailed matters of Employment Law)

Brexit and COVID-19 measures (UK)

The UK left the EU at end of January 2020, and will leave the transition period at end of December 2020.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic on 11th March 2020.

These two events are prompting substantive changes in many occupational, health and safety, and environment related measures in the UK (substantive measures are also being taken in other countries, and at EU level).

The UK’s Brexit measures are found here.

[the vast majority of the UK’s Brexit measures are unchanged since any update made in February 2020]

The UK’s COVID-19 measures are found here.

[the vast majority of the UK’s COVID-19 measures date March 2020]

The UK’s Brexit and the COVID-19 measures are rooted in law. Cardinal Environment Limited advises on occupational health and safety law and environmental law via Email Alert to subscribers to Cardinal Environment EHS Legislation Registers & Checklists. The next Email Alert on UK Registers & Checklists will be at end March (the monthly UK Email Alert as usual).

Subscribers are reminded that they can request Annual Review (a teleconference) on renewal of annual subscriptions.

Of particular note are –

(1) changes around borders

(2) changes around goods transport

(3) changes around people mobility, including across borders

(4) changes around workplace organisation, particularly additional requirements to keep the workplace safe and provide for home working

(5) temporary bans on the opening of some business premises on health grounds

(6) changes around worker employment (this Blog does not address detailed matters of Employment Law)

EU Readiness Notices (EU Brexit)

The UK is exiting the transition period on 31st December.

The European Commission is reviewing – and where necessary updating – the over 100 sector-specific stakeholder preparedness notices it published during the Article 50 negotiations with the UK.

The documents (updated so far) are published as ‘notices for readiness’ for 1st January 2021 –

(1) Air Transport – here

(2) Aviation safety – here

(3) Consumer protection and passenger rights – here

(4) Cosmetic products – here

(5) Animal feed – here

(6) Food law – here

(7) Industrial products – here

(8) Medicinal products for human use and veterinary medical products – here

(9) Movements of live animals – here

(10) Online sale of goods with subsequent parcel delivery – here

(11) Plant health – here

The transition period ends on 31st December, unless it is extended by agreement.

UK-EU Free Trade Agreement (UK Brexit)

The UK government issued today (17th March 2020) the statement set out below –

In light of the latest guidance on coronavirus, we will not formally be convening negotiating work strands tomorrow in the way we did in the previous round.

We expect to share a draft FTA alongside the draft legal texts of a number of the standalone agreements in the near future still, as planned.

Both sides remain fully committed to the negotiations and we remain in regular contact with the European Commission to consider alternative ways to continue discussions, including looking at the possibility of video conferencing or conference calls, and exploring flexibility in the structure for the coming weeks.

The transition period ends on 31 December 2020. This is enshrined in UK law.

The Withdrawal Agreement (the international treaty between the UK and the EU) allows the UK to apply (by end June) to extend the transition period for up to two years.

UK-EU Comprehensive Trade Deal (UK Brexit)

Today the UK Government published its policy paper setting out its approach to negotiations for a Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) with its neighbours, the EU27 bloc. The document is here.

Key aspects –

* It is a vision of a relationship based on friendly cooperation between sovereign equals, with both parties respecting one another’s legal autonomy and right to manage their own resources as they see fit. Whatever happens, the Government will not negotiate any arrangement in which the UK does not have control of its own laws and political life. That means that we will not agree to any obligations for our laws to be aligned with the EU’s, or for the EU’s institutions, including the Court of Justice, to have any jurisdiction in the UK.

* The Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) should be – on the lines of the FTAs already agreed by the EU in recent years with Canada and with other friendly countries.

* The CFTA should be supplemented by a range of other international agreements covering, principally, fisheries, law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, transport, and energy.

* All these agreements should have their own appropriate and precedented governance arrangements, with no role for the Court of Justice.

The EU27 and the UK confirm a progress review will take place in June (this was in the Withdrawal Agreement). In the event that progress is not made, the EU27 and the UK will revert to No Deal. [The Withdrawal Agreement includes an option to extend the transition period for 1-2 years.]

Please note, the Brexit Notices issued by the EU27 and the UK in 2018 and 2019 set out the arrangements that would have applied in 2019 if the Withdrawal Agreement was not agreed (No Deal). The Withdrawal Agreement having been agreed, connectivity, on for the most part the same basis as before, is provided to the end of the transition period (Dec 2020) – the period we are in at the moment.

The 2018/2019 Brexit Notices now apply to No (EU-UK relations) Deal from 1st January 2021. Some updates, notably to processes, documents and dates, are included (as you will have been noticing as I have been posting on this blog).

Whilst it is envisaged that a basic level of travel connectivity will continue after end Dec, organisations and individuals wherever located should now prepare for the new arrangements, tariffs etc, between the EU27 and the UK, that will apply from 1st January 2021. This Blog does not notify on customs, VAT or tariffs, it is focused on ENV and OHS related regulatory matters.

Please keep following this Blog, as further details of the arrangements that will apply for ENV and OHS related regulatory matters from 1st January 2021, are published.

Please note, we expect to meet the deadline for supply of the necessary new UK Registers & Checklists (in all regional variants) by 1st January 2021.

Subscribers will note that provision is already starting to appear on their existing websites.

EU Law in UK 2021 (UK Brexit)

I am being asked about 2019 dated EU Law and its application to or implementation in the UK from 1st January 2021. For example,

* 2019 amendments to the Carcinogens Directive

* 2019 Single-Use Plastics Directive

* 2019 Explosives Precursors Regulation

UK (EU Exit) Statutory Instruments (regulations) and sections of Brexit Bills make changes to the existing statute base, and adopt EU Regulations (not Directives), to enable a standalone statute base as at the end of the Transition Period. This work project can be followed in the supplied Brexit Law List and the Brexit Consolidated Law List.

From 1st January 2021, we will reflect this in the content and the changed structure of the Cardinal Environment EHS Legislation Registers & Checklists for GB systems. Retained EU Law (labelled Brexit Retained EU Law) will replace EU Law at the head of the Registers.

EU Law (applying in EU27) will still be supplied, but it will be found at the base of the Registers, below Regulatory Guidance.

The Checklists and Summaries will be adjusted.

The systems for individual EU27 countries are unaffected, obviously, their content and Register layout will stay as is.

Northern Ireland is a special case, some EU laws (covered by the Withdrawal Agreement) will continue to show at the head of the Registers (a second category labelled Withdrawal Agreement EU Law), the rest will show, as for GB Registers, at the base of the Registers. The Checklists and Summaries will be adjusted.

We are working to a deadline of 31st December 2020 for this system content and Register layout change, and the system navigation is already altered to provide for it.

From 1st January 2021, if a 2019 EU Law is mirrored in GB (Withdrawal Agreement listed Goods EU Law will be mirrored in Northern Ireland), this will be via enactment of new UK/GB Law. Such new UK/GB law will appear in the normal centre of the Registers, and be Email Alerted in the normal way.

From 1st January 2021, GB system Email Alerts will focus on UK/GB Law.

Northern Ireland system Email Alerts will include Listed Withdrawal Agreement Goods EU Law.

EU27 system Email Alerts will continue as is.

This Blog will continue to be used for heads-up, including EU Law more widely, as it is used by all subscribers.

Regulatory Support will continue to handle all enquiries, irrespective of the category of law.

Import Controls (UK Brexit)

From 1st January 2021, import controls will apply for EU goods entering Britain.

The Withdrawal Agreement Protocol will apply to trade between Britain and Northern Ireland, and between Northern Ireland and Ireland.

Business is directed to prepare for border controls by making sure it has an Economic Operator Registration and Identification (EORI) number, and also looking into how declarations should be made, such as by using a customs agent.

The UK Government will ensure facilitations currently available to rest of the world traders will also be open to those trading between GB and EU.

The press announcement is here.

New Import Tariff (UK Brexit)

The Transition Period ends 31st December 2020

The UK is today consulting on its new Import Tariff that will apply to all imports, except those under a trade deal, from 1st January 2021.

This Blog does not focus on tariffs.

Note: special arrangements will apply to Northern Ireland.

The consultation document is here. Consultation is short and ends on 5th March.

The consultation seeks :

* views on a potential series of amendments to the EU’s Common External Tariff to create a bespoke UK tariff- specifically: simplifying and tailoring the UK Global Tariff policy, removing tariffs on goods imported by UK businesses to manufacture other goods, and where the UK has zero or limited domestic production

[so, not a temporary zero tariff on most goods]

* specific feedback on specific products or commodity codes of importance to individuals (individual organisations), including on the corresponding tariff rate

* information on an individual’s (individual organisation’s) interactions with MFN tariffs and the importance of tariffs to a particular sector