High-Viscosity PIB (Polyisobutylene) Re-Classification (IMO)

The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Working Group on the Evaluation of Safety and Pollution Hazards of Chemicals (ESPH 19), meeting at IMO Headquarters from 21 to 25 October, has agreed to classify high-viscosity PIB (Polyisobutylene) as category X for carriage by ship, thereby prohibiting the discharge of cargo residues into the sea.

Previously, PIB was classified as category Y material but there was no differentiation between high or low viscosity grades. Low-viscosity PIB will remain as a category Y product.

PIB is an oil additive, often used to improve the performance of lubricating oil, and is found in products ranging from adhesives to sealants and chewing gum. It is very hazardous to seabirds, who dive underwater to feed and become covered in the sticky substance. This leads to immobilisation, hyperthermia, starvation and eventually death.

The categorization and carriage requirements for high-viscosity PIB will be included in the annual MEPC.2/Circular on the Provisional categorization of liquid substances, usually issued by the IMO on 17 December each year and will be put forward for inclusion in the next edition of the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) which lists chemicals and their hazards and gives both the ship type required to carry that product as well as the environmental hazard rating. Amendments to the IBC Code are put forward on an annual basis so the next amendments would be considered during 2014, for inclusion in the IBC Code with an effective implementation date of 1 July 2016.

Category X under the International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships Annex II Regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk includes noxious liquid substances which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a major hazard to either marine resources or human health and, therefore, justify the prohibition of the discharge into the marine environment.

For substances under category X, a tank from which a substance in Category X has been unloaded, must be prewashed before the ship leaves the port of unloading. The resulting residues must be discharged to a reception facility until the concentration of the substance in the effluent is at or below 0.1% by weight.

Deepwater Horizon (2010 Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Settlement) (US)

Per RT.com news article – BP will stop paying some damage claims under the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill settlement, after an appeals court agreed that the oil giant may be covering ‘fictitious’ payments to businesses. On Wednesday, a split 2-1 jury of the 5th US Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans said the administrator of the payoff program was approving millions of dollars of payment based on what BP called a flawed interpretation of the settlement deal reached last year. It ordered US District Judge Carl Barbier, who in March had approved administrator Patrick Juneau’s damage evaluation methods, to reconsider his decision and make sure that the claims covered are legitimate. The judge was also told to bar payment of certain claims until the review is over. The appeals judges however upheld another Barvier ruling, which in April dismissed BP’s lawsuit against Juneau.

Here and Here are the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals Opinions (rulings) issued 2nd October (Wednesday).

Here is the company’s press release on the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals rulings.

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (US)

(Reuters) – (The Guardian)

BP returns to court to try to hold down fines that could hit $18 billion in a new phase of the Gulf of Mexico trial that will rule on how much oil it spilled in 2010. Starting today in New Orleans, this second of three trial phases, could – in the worst outcome – land the company with a bill five times greater than the $3.5 billion it has set aside for fines.

The outcome hinges on what the court decides about whether BP made every effort to cap the well, and what it decides about the dispute over how much oil escaped into the Gulf. The trial is being heard by US district judge Carl Barbier.

The first phase, which wound up in April, was to apportion blame for the events leading up to the fatal blowout of the well among BP and its partners, Transocean Ltd and Halliburton Co. The blowout killed 11 men and polluted large areas of ocean and beach and damaged wildlife and industry in five Gulf states.

Today, the government, joined now by BP’s former partners on the well, will argue that the company deliberately underestimated the size of the spill, and wasted time trying to plug the well with debris, when the flow was too strong. BP in pre-trial motions argues that the federal government reviewed and approved of its various plans to cap the well at every juncture, and that other oil companies also agreed with its strategy.

The US federal Clean Water Act (CWA) levies civil and criminal penalties on parties that violate its oil discharge prohibitions. Under the Clean Water Act, BP could be fined $1,100 for each barrel of oil that escaped into the Gulf, rising to $4,300 a barrel if the company is found to be guilty of gross negligence.

Even once those fines are set under the Clean Water Act, BP could still be hit with high bills for environmental restoration to the Gulf.

The Resources and Ecosystem Sustainability, Tourist Opportunities, and Revived Economies of the Gulf Coast States Act (known as the “RESTORE Act”) was developed to direct a portion of the Clean Water Act civil penalties from the Deepwater Horizon incident to Gulf restoration. President Obama signed the RESTORE Act into law on July 6, 2012. See here for the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) webpage on the RESTORE Act.

Niger Delta Oil Pollution (Africa)

Latest is the Bodo community (Niger Delta fishermen and others) reject Shell’s offer of compensation (two 2008 pipeline leaks). Here is the Guardian’s news article.

Here is the 2011 UNEP report on problem of oil pollution in the Niger Delta (Africa).

Here is Wikipedia on this long-standing matter.