EU Law in UK 2021 (UK Brexit)

I am being asked about 2019 dated EU Law and its application to or implementation in the UK from 1st January 2021. For example,

* 2019 amendments to the Carcinogens Directive

* 2019 Single-Use Plastics Directive

* 2019 Explosives Precursors Regulation

UK (EU Exit) Statutory Instruments (regulations) and sections of Brexit Bills make changes to the existing statute base, and adopt EU Regulations (not Directives), to enable a standalone statute base as at the end of the Transition Period. This work project can be followed in the supplied Brexit Law List and the Brexit Consolidated Law List.

From 1st January 2021, we will reflect this in the content and the changed structure of the Cardinal Environment EHS Legislation Registers & Checklists for GB systems. Retained EU Law (labelled Brexit Retained EU Law) will replace EU Law at the head of the Registers.

EU Law (applying in EU27) will still be supplied, but it will be found at the base of the Registers, below Regulatory Guidance.

The Checklists and Summaries will be adjusted.

The systems for individual EU27 countries are unaffected, obviously, their content and Register layout will stay as is.

Northern Ireland is a special case, some EU laws (covered by the Withdrawal Agreement) will continue to show at the head of the Registers (a second category labelled Withdrawal Agreement EU Law), the rest will show, as for GB Registers, at the base of the Registers. The Checklists and Summaries will be adjusted.

We are working to a deadline of 31st December 2020 for this system content and Register layout change, and the system navigation is already altered to provide for it.

From 1st January 2021, if a 2019 EU Law is mirrored in GB (Withdrawal Agreement listed Goods EU Law will be mirrored in Northern Ireland), this will be via enactment of new UK/GB Law. Such new UK/GB law will appear in the normal centre of the Registers, and be Email Alerted in the normal way.

From 1st January 2021, GB system Email Alerts will focus on UK/GB Law.

Northern Ireland system Email Alerts will include Listed Withdrawal Agreement Goods EU Law.

EU27 system Email Alerts will continue as is.

This Blog will continue to be used for heads-up, including EU Law more widely, as it is used by all subscribers.

Regulatory Support will continue to handle all enquiries, irrespective of the category of law.

Emissions Trading Systems (UK Brexit, EU, Switzerland)

As of 1 January 2020, Switzerland is the first country to link its greenhouse gas emissions trading system (SETS) with the EU emissions trading system (EU ETS).

A process that took almost 10 years, is now finalized allowing the entry into force of the entire agreement between the EU and Switzerland on the linking of their greenhouse gas emissions trading systems that was signed in Bern on 23 November 2017 (Agreement).

The EU and Switzerland operate separate greenhouse gas emissions trading systems (ETS) as part of their respective policies to tackle climate change. After the Agreement’s entry into force in 1 January 2020, the SETS is now linked to the much larger EU ETS to allow for the mutual recognition of emission allowances from the two system.

The UK, whilst in the transition period, participates in the EU ETS, and the 2018 suspension applicable to UK auctioning and issuing 2019 allowances is lifted (with access to UK registry accounts continuing). Please confirm this with BEIS.

The UK has a hitherto unused Carbon Tax on its statute books, and has closed its wider (non EU ETS) existing ETS (the CRC carbon trading system). From 1st January 2021, it could seek to continue a UK version of the EU ETS with mutual recognition of allowances between the UK and the EU systems. The linking of the (Switzerland) SETS with the EU ETS would be a reference point for such negotiations.

China, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea and the United States are operating or are developing ETSs.

Further information is in this article – here.

EU Single-Use Plastics Directive (UK alignment)

From 1st January 2021, the UK is outside the EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement transition period.

Northern Ireland – EU Law on goods (includes Environment) continues to apply.

Scotland – a ban on cotton buds is already in place

England – plastic straws, stirrers and cotton buds ban will come into force in April 2020

Wales – the Welsh government will consult

The EU Single-Use Plastics Directive was published in 2019, Member States have two years to implement, some aspects a bit longer – here.

The 2019 Directive mandates a reduction in the consumption of the single-use plastic products listed in Part A of the Annex, in line with the overall objectives of the EU’s waste policy, in particular waste prevention, leading to a substantial reversal of increasing consumption trends. The measures (put in place in member states) should achieve a measurable quantitative reduction in the consumption of the single-use plastic products listed in Part A of the Annex on the territory of the Member State by 2026 compared to 2022.

The 2019 Directive also mandates a ban on the placing on the market of the single-use plastic products listed in Part B of the Annex and of products made from oxo-degradable plastic.

The 2019 Directive also obliges Member States to ensure that single-use plastic products listed in Part C of the Annex that have caps and lids made of plastic may be placed on the market only if the caps and lids remain attached to the containers during the products’ intended use stage.

The 2019 Directive sets out further measures.

10 Changes after Friday (UK & EU Brexit)

Exit day is Friday (12pm CET, 11pm UK time)

10 immediate changes (credit – online article of this title at ukandeu.ac.uk) – my summary

(1) The UK will no longer be an EU member state

The EU will officially become of a union of 27 rather than 28. If the UK wants to be an EU member again it would have to reapply and negotiate to rejoin.

(2) The UK will no longer have any MEPs

UK MEPs, elected in May 2019, will no longer sit in the European Parliament. Around a third of the UK’s 73 seats will be redistributed to other countries. The overall size of the Parliament will be reduced.

(3) The UK will no longer have a commissioner

Julian King was the last UK commissioner. The UK did not nominate a new candidate to the European Commission that started on 1 December, despite requests from the Commission to do so.

(4) The UK Prime Minister will stop attending European Council summits

These summits—the meetings of the heads of state and government of the EU—have become a fixture of the EU calendar and tend to be the most high-profile of all EU activities.

The UK Prime Minister will no longer have an invitation to attend, except on rare occasions where a EU-UK meeting is tacked on to a summit.

In fact, the European Council in October was the current UK prime minister’s first and last European Council meeting as prime minister.

(5) UK ministers and officials will not attend other Council meetings

It’s not just the prime minister that has been going to meetings in Brussels. For the last 47 years, UK ministers (or their officials) have regularly attended Council meetings.

Last week, Sajid Javid went to the UK’s last Economic and Financial Affairs Council. In early January Dominic Raab joined other EU foreign ministers at a meeting to discuss Iran.

The Withdrawal Agreement allows for the possibility that the UK could be invited to attend meetings in exceptional circumstances, if the topic is relevant to the UK-EU relationship.

Chris Pincher, the UK’s Europe minister, attended the UK’s last Council meeting on 28 January.

(6) UK judges will no longer sit at the European Court of Justice

British judges—Eleanor Sharpston, Ian Stewart Forrester and Christopher Vajda—will no longer be members of the two courts that form the Court of Justice of the European Union: the Court of Justice and the General Court.

Rulings on the application and interpretation of EU law, which will still apply to the UK in the transition period, and in some cases beyond, will be taken with no input from British judges.

(7) EU law will apply to the UK, not as a member state but via the EU-UK Withdrawal Agreement (an international treaty)

EU law will continue to apply in the UK during the transition period.

However, it will be determined by the UK’s obligations under the Withdrawal Agreement, rather than as a Member State.

The 2020 UK Withdrawal Agreement Act effectively copies over the effects of the European Communities Act for the transition period to ensure legal continuity.

[note : I have a new category for EU Law in UK 2021 because we are waiting clarification on long tail implementation, law by law, of particularly 2019 EU instruments]

(8) The UK will be able to start trade deals with other countries

From 11pm on 31 January 2020, the UK will be able to negotiate, sign and ratify trade agreements with other countries. Implementation will be after the transition period.

While the UK in transition, the EU has asked other countries the EU has trade deals with already to continue to treat the UK as a member state for trade purposes. The intention is that these other countries should agree to the status quo during the transition period.

The UK has already agreed to roll over the EU’s existing trade deals with around 20 countries and trade blocs, and it has held preparatory talks with others which it needs to complete by the time transition ends.

But it can also start formal negotiations with other countries with whom the EU has not had a deal before, something it can’t do as an EU member.

(9) EU member states may refuse UK extradition requests for their citizens

Under the European Arrest Warrant, member states must comply with requests to arrest and/or extradite individuals who are wanted in other member states, with only some limited grounds for refusal.

This includes a time limit of 60 days to comply and member states cannot refuse to extradite their own nationals, except in limited circumstances.

The Withdrawal Agreement allows both EU member states and the UK to refuse to comply with such requests from the start of the transition period.

(10) Formal interactions with EU will take place through the UK-EU Joint Committee

While the UK was a member state it had a myriad of formal interactions with other member states and EU officials within the EU’s many institutions, bodies and agencies.

That ceases at 11pm on 31 January 2020.

Instead, a new body will be set up—the UK-EU Joint Committee—whose main job will be to oversee the implementation and application of the Withdrawal Agreement. This is of particular importance in Northern Ireland.

This will likely also become the body through which the UK and the EU manage any future trade agreement, as well as other treaties reached on matters like security and police co-operation.

EU Law in UK 2021 (3) (Northern Ireland Brexit)

Exit day is next Friday.

The UK states the Transition Period will end on 31st December, and not a later date.

From 1 Jan 2021, whilst GB will not accept new EU law with implementation dates beyond the end of the Transition Period, Northern Ireland will stay aligned with those EU rules that are relevant to this Blog –

(1) legislation on product requirements

(2) sanitary rules for veterinary control (“SPS rules”)

(3) rules on agricultural production and marketing

Annex 2 to the (Withdrawal Treaty Northern Ireland/Ireland) Protocol lists the areas in which Northern Ireland will stay aligned with EU product/technical standards. The areas (relevant for our purposes) are as follows:

• goods—general provisions (including product safety);
• motor vehicles, including tractors;
• lifting appliances;
• gas appliances;
• pressure vessels;
• measuring instruments;
• construction products and machinery;
• electrical and radio equipment;
• textiles and footwear;
• cosmetics and toys;
• explosives and pyrotechnics;
• medicinal products;
• medical devices;
• substances of human origin;
• chemicals;
• pesticides and biocides;
• waste;
• environment and energy efficiency;
• marine equipment;
• food—general, hygiene, ingredients, contact material, and, other matters;
• animal feed—products and hygiene;
• Genetically Modified Organisms;
• live animals, germinal products and products of animal origin;
• plant reproductive material;
• sanitary and phytosanitary standards;
• ‘other’, including provisions relating to crude oil, tobacco, crystal glass, weapons.

This means the 2019 Single-Use Plastics Directive would be implemented in Northern Ireland, as it would be in Ireland.

Northern Ireland systems (subscribers’ EHS Legislation Registers & Checklists) are marked Brexit Transition, as are GB systems and GB variants (England, Scotland, Wales), but please note the Register layout will differ (to take account of the Protocol).

Please continue to follow this Blog, as further details emerge.

EU Law in UK 2021 (2) (UK Brexit)

UPDATE (24th Jan) : correction – the main combined cycle waste law was enacted in 2018, but the Single-Use Plastics Directive was enacted in 2019. The EU 2018 updates to the waste law (combined cycle) will be implemented. The Single-Use Plastics Directive will not be implemented.

EU Law enacted in 2019 with two year (or more) implementation deadlines in 2021 would not be implemented.

Exit day is 31st January (next Friday)

EU law continues to be enacted. I posted before about long tail implementation deadlines. I said in that post that the combined cycle waste law and other waste law updates enacted in 2019 with two year or minus more implementation deadlines would be implemented in the UK.

However, on 16th January, the BEIS Secretary answered as follows re the 2019 EU Copyright Directive –

The deadline for implementing the EU Copyright Directive is 7 June 2021. The United Kingdom will leave the European Union on 31 January 2020 and the Implementation Period will end on 31 December 2020. The Government has committed not to extend the Implementation Period. Therefore, the United Kingdom will not be required to implement the Directive, and the Government has no plans to do so. Any future changes to the UK copyright framework will be considered as part of the usual domestic policy process.

Please continue to follow this Blog for further updates.